Protocols - Xenopus Wiki

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Books for Xenopus Research and Protocols

  • Normal Table of Xenopus Laevis (Daudin), Nieuwkoop and Faber (Third edition), 1994 [1]
    • a systematic and chronological description of Xenopus laevis development
  • Early Development of Xenopus laevis: A Laboratory Manual, Sive, Grainger, and Harland, 2000 [2]
    • comprehensive collection of protocols for the study of early development in Xenopus embryos
  • The Laboratory Xenopus sp., Green, 2010 [3]
    • a highly detailed manual containing Xenopus husbandry, management, veterinary care, and frog and equipment vendor information
  • Xenopus Protocols: Cell Biology and Signal Transduction, Liu (First edition), 2006 [4]
    • step-by-step laboratory instructions, an introduction outlining the principles behind the technique, lists of the necessary equipment and reagents
  • Xenopus Protocols: Post-Genomic Approaches. , Hoppler and Vize [5]
    • expanded second edition with novel approaches inspired by X. tropicalis genome sequencing
  • Xenopus laevis: Practical Uses in Cell and Molecular Biology, Volume 36, Kay and Peng, 1991 [6]
    • detailed description of a wide range of uses for Xenopus laevis oocytes and embryos in cell and molecular biology
  • Transgenic Xenopus: Microinjection Methods and Developmental Neurobiology, Seidman and Soreq, 1997 [7]
    • referenced guide to the use of microinjected embryos studying the role and regulation of nervous system proteins during development
  • Atlas of Xenopus Development, Bernardini, Prati, Bonetti, and Scari, 1999 [8]
    • scanning, transmission, and light microscopy images of Xenopus embryonic development
  • The early development of Xenopus laevis. An atlas of the histology, Hausen and Riebesell, 1991 [9]
    • detailed histological sections of Xenopus embryonic development
  • Color Atlas of Xenopus laevis Histology, Wiechmann and Wirsig-Wiechmann, 2003 [10]
    • central source on the microscopic anatomy of cells, tissues, and major organs of Xenopus laevis

Online Xenopus Resources

External links to the Journal of Visualized Experiments (JOVE) - Xenopus embryo [11] - excellent video demonstrations

    • Obtaining Eggs from Xenopus laevis Females - Cross & Powers [12]
    • Microinjection of Xenopus Laevis Oocytes - Cohen et al. - [13]
    • Fertilization of Xenopus oocytes, Host Transfer Method - Schneider et al. [14]
    • Tissue Determination Using Animal Cap Transplant (ACT) Assay in X. laevis - Viczian & Zuber [15]
    • Blastomere Explants to Test for Cell Fate Commitment - Grant et al. [16]
    • Transgenic Xenopus laevis by Restriction Enzyme Mediated Integration and Nuclear Transplantation - Amaya & Kroll [17]
    • Organizer and Animal Pole Explants from X. laevis Embryos and Cell Adhesion Assay - Ogata & Cho [18]
    • Plastic Embedding and Sectioning of X. laevis Embryos - Ogata1 et al. [19]
    • Visualizing RNA Localization in Xenopus Oocytes - Gagnon & Mowry [20]
    • Neural Explant Cultures from Xenopus laevis - Lowery et al. [21]
    • Translocation of Fluorescent Proteins in Xenopus Ectoderm in Response to Wnt Signaling - Itoh & Sokol [22]
    • Dissection, Culture, and Analysis of X. laevis Embryonic Retinal Tissue - McDonough et al. [23]
    • X. tropicalis Egg Extracts to Identify Microtubule-associated RNAs - Sharp & Blower [24]
    • Electroporation of Craniofacial Mesenchyme - Tabler & Liu [25]
    • Electrophysiological Recording from Xenopus Nerve-muscle Co-cultures - Yazejian et al. [26]
    • Single Cell Electroporation in vivo within the Intact Developing Brain - Hewapathirane & Haas - [27]
    • Live-cell Imaging and Quantitative Analysis of Embryonic Epithelial Cells - Joshi & Davidson [28]
    • Preparation and Fractionation of Xenopus laevis Egg Extracts - Cross & Powers [29]
    • In Vitro Nuclear Assembly Using Fractionated Xenopus Egg Extracts - Cross & Powers [30]
    • Study of the DNA Damage Checkpoint using Xenopus Egg Extracts - Willis et al. [31]
    • Two Types of Assays for Detecting Frog Sperm Chemoattraction - Burnett et al. [32]
    • Comparative in vivo Study of gp96 Adjuvanticity in X. laevis - Nedelkovska et al. [33]
    • Patch Clamp and Perfusion Techniques - Yang et al. [34]
    • Patch Clamp Recording of Ion Channels - Brown et al. [35]
    • Cation Transport in Xenopus Oocytes - Dürr et al.[36]

External links to Cold Spring Harbor Xenopus Protocols [37] - subscription required, select articles listed

    • Housing and Feeding of Xenopus laevis - Sive et al. [38]
    • Inducing Ovulation in Xenopus laevis - Sive et al. [39]
    • Xenopus laevis In Vitro Fertilization and Natural Mating Methods - Sive et al. [40]
    • Egg Collection and In Vitro Fertilization of the Western Clawed Frog Xenopus tropicalis - Showell & Conlon [41]
    • Isolation of Xenopus Oocytes - Sive et al. [42]
    • Isolating Xenopus laevis Testes - Sive et al. [43]
    • Dejellying Xenopus laevis Embryos - Sive et al. [44]
    • Removing the Vitelline Membrane from Xenopus laevis Embryos - Sive et al. [45]
    • Microinjection of Xenopus Embryos - Sive et al. [46]
    • Defolliculation of Xenopus Oocytes - Sive et al. [47]
    • Microinjection of Xenopus Oocytes - Sive et al. [48]
    • Animal Cap Isolation from Xenopus laevis - Sive et al. [49]
    • Xenopus laevis Keller Explants - Sive et al. [50]
    • Microinjection of RNA and Preparation of Secreted Proteins from Xenopus Oocytes - Sive et al. [51]
    • Calibration of the Injection Volume for Microinjection of Xenopus Oocytes and Embryos - Sive et al. [52]
    • Isolation of DNA from Red Blood Cells in Xenopus - Sive et al. [53]
    • Investigating Morphogenesis in Xenopus Embryos: Imaging Strategies, Processing, and Analysis - Kim & Davidson [54]
    • Low-Magnification Live Imaging of Xenopus Embryos for Cell and Developmental Biology - Wallingford [55]
    • High-Magnification In Vivo Imaging of Xenopus Embryos for Cell and Developmental Biology - Keiserman et al. [56]
    • Preparation of Fixed Xenopus Embryos for Confocal Imaging - Wallingford [57]
    • Whole-Mount Fluorescence Immunocytochemistry on Xenopus Embryos - Lee et al. [58]
    • Generation of Transgenic Xenopus laevis - Kroll & Amaya - [59] [60] [61]
    • In Vivo Time-Lapse Imaging of Neuronal Development in Xenopus - Ruthazer et al. [62]
    • Photoconversion for Tracking the Dynamics of Cell Movement in Xenopus laevis Embryos - Chernet et al. [63]
    • Single-Cell Electroporation in Xenopus - Liu & Haas [64]
    • Imaging Axon Pathfinding in Xenopus In Vivo - Leung & Holt [65]
    • A Versatile Protocol for mRNA Electroporation of Xenopus laevis Embryos - Chernet & Levin [66]

Selected Protocol Sections

Animal Husbandry

Lab Solutions and Reagents (click each to view expanded content)

Generating Embryos


In Situ Hybridization


ChIP protocols

  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of Xenopus embryos., Methods Mol Biol. 2012;917:279-92. [73] [74]
    • Akkers RC, Jacobi UG, Veenstra GJ.
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation in early Xenopus laevis embryos., Dev Dyn. 2009 Jun;238(6):1422-32. [75] [76]
    • Blythe SA, Reid CD, Kessler DS, Klein PS.


Other Embryo Staining Protocols

Other Immuno Protocols and Protein Protocols

Nucleic Acid Protocols

Oocyte Transfer Technique (Heasman/Wylie labs)

Xenopus Oocyte and Egg Extracts

Xenopus Tissue Culture

version: [4.2.0]

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