Difference between revisions of "Protocols"

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*Affinity Columns
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__TOC__
**[[Making an Affinity Column]]
 
**[[Running an Affinity Column]]
 
  
  
*[[Oocyte Transfer Technique]]
+
== '''''Books for Xenopus Research and Protocols''''' ==
**[[Part 1: Choosing Oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs)]]
+
*'''Normal Table of Xenopus Laevis (Daudin)''', Nieuwkoop and Faber (Third edition), 1994 [http://www.xenbase.org/literature/book.do?method=display&bookId=1]
**[[Part 2: ODN Modification]]
+
**a systematic and chronological description of Xenopus laevis development
**[[Part 3: Host Transfer Technique]]
+
*'''Early Development of Xenopus laevis: A Laboratory Manual''', Sive, Grainger, and Harland, 2000 [http://www.xenbase.org/literature/book.do?method=display&bookId=22]
**[[Part 4:Fertilization and Development]]
+
**comprehensive collection of protocols for the study of early development in Xenopus embryos
 +
*'''The Laboratory Xenopus sp.''', Green, 2010 [http://www.xenbase.org/literature/book.do?method=display&bookId=222]
 +
**a highly detailed manual containing Xenopus husbandry, management, veterinary care, and frog and equipment vendor information
 +
*'''Xenopus Protocols: Cell Biology and Signal Transduction''', Liu (First edition), 2006 [http://www.xenbase.org/literature/book.do?method=display&bookId=206]
 +
**step-by-step laboratory instructions, an introduction outlining the principles behind the technique, lists of the necessary equipment and reagents
 +
*'''Xenopus Protocols: Post-Genomic Approaches. ''', Hoppler and Vize [http://xenbase.org/literature/book.do?method=display&bookId=262]
 +
**expanded second edition with novel approaches inspired by X. tropicalis genome sequencing
 +
*'''Xenopus laevis: Practical Uses in Cell and Molecular Biology, Volume 36''', Kay and Peng, 1991 [http://www.xenbase.org/literature/book.do?method=display&bookId=204]
 +
**detailed description of a wide range of uses for Xenopus laevis oocytes and embryos in cell and molecular biology
 +
*'''Transgenic Xenopus: Microinjection Methods and Developmental Neurobiology''', Seidman and Soreq, 1997 [http://www.xenbase.org/literature/book.do?method=display&bookId=203]
 +
**referenced guide to the use of microinjected embryos studying the role and regulation of nervous system proteins during development
 +
*'''Atlas of Xenopus Development''', Bernardini, Prati, Bonetti, and Scari, 1999 [http://www.xenbase.org/literature/book.do?method=display&bookId=202]
 +
**scanning, transmission, and light microscopy images of Xenopus embryonic development
 +
*'''The early development of Xenopus laevis. An atlas of the histology''', Hausen and Riebesell, 1991 [http://www.xenbase.org/literature/book.do?method=display&bookId=124]
 +
**detailed histological sections of Xenopus embryonic development
 +
*'''Color Atlas of Xenopus laevis Histology''', Wiechmann and Wirsig-Wiechmann, 2003 [http://www.xenbase.org/literature/book.do?method=display&bookId=82]
 +
**central source on the microscopic anatomy of cells, tissues, and major organs of Xenopus laevis
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== '''''Online Xenopus Resources''''' ==
 +
 
 +
=== '''External links to the Journal of Visualized Experiments (JOVE) - Xenopus embryo''' [http://www.jove.com/keyword/xenopus+embryo] - excellent video demonstrations ===
 +
**Obtaining Eggs from Xenopus laevis Females - Cross & Powers [http://www.jove.com/video/890/obtaining-eggs-from-xenopus-laevis-females]
 +
**Microinjection of Xenopus Laevis Oocytes - Cohen et al. - [http://www.jove.com/video/1106/microinjection-of-xenopus-laevis-oocytes]
 +
**Fertilization of Xenopus oocytes, Host Transfer Method - Schneider et al. [http://www.jove.com/video/1864/fertilization-of-xenopus-oocytes-using-the-host-transfer-method]
 +
**Tissue Determination Using Animal Cap Transplant (ACT) Assay in X. laevis - Viczian & Zuber [http://www.jove.com/video/1932/tissue-determination-using-animal-cap-transplant-act-assay-xenopus]
 +
**Blastomere Explants to Test for Cell Fate Commitment - Grant et al. [http://www.jove.com/video/4458/blastomere-explants-to-test-for-cell-fate-commitment-during-embryonic]
 +
**Transgenic Xenopus laevis by Restriction Enzyme Mediated Integration and Nuclear Transplantation - Amaya & Kroll [http://www.jove.com/video/2010/production-transgenic-xenopus-laevis-restriction-enzyme-mediated]
 +
**Organizer and Animal Pole Explants from X. laevis Embryos and Cell Adhesion Assay - Ogata & Cho [http://www.jove.com/video/187/dissection-organizer-animal-pole-explants-from-xenopus-laevis-embryos]
 +
**Plastic Embedding and Sectioning of X. laevis Embryos - Ogata1 et al. [http://www.jove.com/video/188/plastic-embedding-and-sectioning-of-xenopus-laevis-embryos]
 +
**Visualizing RNA Localization in Xenopus Oocytes - Gagnon & Mowry [http://www.jove.com/video/1704/visualizing-rna-localization-in-xenopus-oocytes]
 +
**Neural Explant Cultures from Xenopus laevis - Lowery et al. [http://www.jove.com/video/4232/neural-explant-cultures-from-xenopus-laevis]
 +
**Translocation of Fluorescent Proteins in Xenopus Ectoderm in Response to Wnt Signaling - Itoh & Sokol [http://www.jove.com/video/2700/polarized-translocation-fluorescent-proteins-xenopus-ectoderm]
 +
**Dissection, Culture, and Analysis of X. laevis Embryonic Retinal Tissue - McDonough et al. [http://www.jove.com/video/4377/dissection-culture-analysis-xenopus-laevis-embryonic-retinal]
 +
**X. tropicalis Egg Extracts to Identify Microtubule-associated RNAs - Sharp & Blower [http://www.jove.com/video/50434/production-xenopus-tropicalis-egg-extracts-to-identify-microtubule]
 +
**Electroporation of Craniofacial Mesenchyme - Tabler & Liu [http://www.jove.com/video/3381/electroporation-of-craniofacial-mesenchyme]
 +
**Electrophysiological Recording from Xenopus Nerve-muscle Co-cultures - Yazejian et al. [http://www.jove.com/video/50253/simultaneous-pre-post-synaptic-electrophysiological-recording-from]
 +
**Single Cell Electroporation in vivo within the Intact Developing Brain - Hewapathirane & Haas - [http://www.jove.com/video/705/single-cell-electroporation-in-vivo-within-the-intact-developing-brain]
 +
**Live-cell Imaging and Quantitative Analysis of Embryonic Epithelial Cells - Joshi & Davidson [http://www.jove.com/video/1949/live-cell-imaging-quantitative-analysis-embryonic-epithelial-cells]
 +
**Preparation and Fractionation of Xenopus laevis Egg Extracts - Cross & Powers [http://www.jove.com/video/891/preparation-and-fractionation-of-xenopus-laevis-egg-extracts]
 +
**In Vitro Nuclear Assembly Using Fractionated Xenopus Egg Extracts - Cross & Powers [http://www.jove.com/video/908/in-vitro-nuclear-assembly-using-fractionated-xenopus-egg-extracts]
 +
**Study of the DNA Damage Checkpoint using Xenopus Egg Extracts - Willis et al. [http://www.jove.com/video/4449/study-of-the-dna-damage-checkpoint-using-xenopus-egg-extracts]
 +
**Two Types of Assays for Detecting Frog Sperm Chemoattraction - Burnett et al. [http://www.jove.com/video/3407/two-types-of-assays-for-detecting-frog-sperm-chemoattraction]
 +
**Comparative in vivo Study of gp96 Adjuvanticity in X. laevis - Nedelkovska et al. [http://www.jove.com/video/2026/comparative-vivo-study-gp96-adjuvanticity-frog-xenopus]
 +
**Patch Clamp and Perfusion Techniques - Yang et al. [http://www.jove.com/video/2269/patch-clamp-perfusion-techniques-for-studying-ion-channels-expressed]
 +
**Patch Clamp Recording of Ion Channels - Brown et al. [http://www.jove.com/video/936/patch-clamp-recording-of-ion-channels-expressed-in-xenopus-oocytes]
 +
**Cation Transport in Xenopus Oocytes - Dürr et al.[http://www.jove.com/video/50201/measuring-cation-transport-nak-hk-atpase-xenopus-oocytes-atomic]
 +
**Stem cell-like Xenopus Embryonic Explants to Study Early Neural Developmental Features In Vitro and In Vivo - BC.Durand [https://www.jove.com/video/53474/stem-cell-like-xenopus-embryonic-explants-to-study-early-neural]
 +
**Dissection of Xenopus laevis Neural Crest for in vitro Explant Culture or in vivo Transplantation - Millet & Monsoro-Burq [https://www.jove.com/video/51118/dissection-xenopus-laevis-neural-crest-for-vitro-explant-culture-or]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== '''External links to Cold Spring Harbor Xenopus Protocols''' [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/search?fulltext=Xenopus&submit=yes&x=18&y=12&tocsectionid=protocol&tocsectionid=recipe&tocsectionid=topic+introduction&tocsectionid=emerging+model+organisms&tocsectionid=product+protocol&tocsectionid=kit&tocsectionid=information+panel] - subscription required, select articles listed ===
 +
**Housing and Feeding of Xenopus laevis - Sive et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2007/5/pdb.top8.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Inducing Ovulation in Xenopus laevis - Sive et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2007/5/pdb.prot4734.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Xenopus laevis In Vitro Fertilization and Natural Mating Methods - Sive et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2007/5/pdb.prot4737.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Egg Collection and In Vitro Fertilization of the Western Clawed Frog Xenopus tropicalis - Showell & Conlon [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2009/9/pdb.prot5293.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Isolation of Xenopus Oocytes - Sive et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2010/12/pdb.prot5534.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Isolating Xenopus laevis Testes - Sive et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2007/5/pdb.prot4735.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Dejellying Xenopus laevis Embryos  - Sive et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2007/5/pdb.prot4731.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Removing the Vitelline Membrane from Xenopus laevis Embryos - Sive et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2007/5/pdb.prot4732.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Microinjection of Xenopus Embryos - Sive et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2010/12/pdb.ip81.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Defolliculation of Xenopus Oocytes - Sive et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2010/12/pdb.prot5535.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Microinjection of Xenopus Oocytes - Sive et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2010/12/pdb.prot5536.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Animal Cap Isolation from Xenopus laevis - Sive et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2007/6/pdb.prot4744.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Xenopus laevis Keller Explants - Sive et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2007/6/pdb.prot4749.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Microinjection of RNA and Preparation of Secreted Proteins from Xenopus Oocytes - Sive et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2010/12/pdb.prot5538.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Calibration of the Injection Volume for Microinjection of Xenopus Oocytes and Embryos - Sive et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2010/12/pdb.prot5537.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Isolation of DNA from Red Blood Cells in Xenopus - Sive et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2012/1/pdb.prot067462.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Investigating Morphogenesis in Xenopus Embryos: Imaging Strategies, Processing, and Analysis - Kim & Davidson [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2013/4/pdb.top073890.abstract?sid=47d75b27-9727-4811-8a78-0330a022b90f]
 +
**Low-Magnification Live Imaging of Xenopus Embryos for Cell and Developmental Biology - Wallingford [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2010/5/pdb.prot5425.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**High-Magnification In Vivo Imaging of Xenopus Embryos for Cell and Developmental Biology - Keiserman et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2010/5/pdb.prot5427.abstract?sid=3a8d778b-0e2c-4925-bb88-c7ade32e7bff]
 +
**Preparation of Fixed Xenopus Embryos for Confocal Imaging - Wallingford [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2010/5/pdb.prot5426.abstract?sid=3a8d778b-0e2c-4925-bb88-c7ade32e7bff]
 +
**Whole-Mount Fluorescence Immunocytochemistry on Xenopus Embryos - Lee et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2008/2/pdb.prot4957.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Generation of Transgenic Xenopus laevis - Kroll & Amaya - [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2007/9/pdb.prot4838.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae] [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2007/9/pdb.prot4839.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae] [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2007/9/pdb.prot4840.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**In Vivo Time-Lapse Imaging of Neuronal Development in Xenopus - Ruthazer et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2013/9/pdb.top077156.abstract?sid=47d75b27-9727-4811-8a78-0330a022b90f]
 +
**Photoconversion for Tracking the Dynamics of Cell Movement in Xenopus laevis Embryos - Chernet et al. [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2012/6/pdb.prot068502.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Single-Cell Electroporation in Xenopus - Liu & Haas [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2011/9/pdb.top065607.abstract?sid=009b88bf-7bfb-4279-9528-70643a25bbae]
 +
**Imaging Axon Pathfinding in Xenopus In Vivo - Leung & Holt [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2012/9/pdb.prot070003.abstract?sid=47d75b27-9727-4811-8a78-0330a022b90f]
 +
**A Versatile Protocol for mRNA Electroporation of Xenopus laevis Embryos - Chernet & Levin [http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2012/4/pdb.prot067694.abstract?sid=47d75b27-9727-4811-8a78-0330a022b90f]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== '''''General Research Protocols''''' ==
 +
 
 +
=== '''''Animal Husbandry''''' ===
 +
*obtain frogs and frog housing equipment [http://www.xenbase.org/other/obtain.do]
 +
*Xenopus Express links [http://www.xenopus.com/links.htm] - Xenopus Express husbandry [http://www.xenopus.com/husbandry.htm]
 +
*[[Xenopus tropicalis and Xenopus laevis environmental parameter standard operating procedure (Kroll lab)]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== '''''[[Lab Solutions and Reagents]]''''' (click each to view expanded content) ===
 +
*[[culture media]]
 +
*[[immunohistochemistry]]
 +
*[[in situ hybridization]]
 +
*[[fixatives]]
 +
*[[DNA/RNA preparation]]
 +
*[[embryo manipulation/dissection]]
 +
*[[microinjection]]
 +
*[[general buffers and salt solutions]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== '''''Generating Embryos''''' ===
 +
*[[inducing egg laying via hCG injection (Vize lab)]]
 +
*[[anesthesia, in vitro fertilization, and natural mating of Xenopus tropicalis (Conlon lab)]]
 +
*[[benzocaine stock, 100x (Khokha lab)]]
 +
*[[in vitro fertilization of Xenopus laevis (Conlon lab)]]
 +
*[[high-salt solution for egg laying (Zorn lab/Ron Laskey)]]
 +
*[[dejellying embryos (Sive et al. 2000)]]
 +
*[[dejellying embryos (Zorn lab)]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== '''''Transgenesis''''' ===
 +
*[[transgenesis in Xenopus laevis - adapted from Amaya et al 2001 (Conlon lab)]]
 +
*[[tadpole tail sampling for genomic DNA (Conlon lab)]]
 +
*''Production of transgenic Xenopus laevis by restriction enzyme mediated integration and nuclear transplantation.'' Amaya E, Kroll K.  J Vis Exp. 2010 Aug 21;(42). [http://www.jove.com/video/2010/production-of-transgenic-xenopus-laevis-by-restriction-enzyme-mediated-integration-and-nuclear-transplantation]
 +
*''A method for generating transgenic frog embryos.'' Ishibashi S, Kroll KL, Amaya E.  Methods Mol Biol. 2008;461:447-66.  [http://www.springerlink.com/content/vn5v1470g87620t1/#section=96225&page=1]
 +
*''A method for generating transgenic frog embryos.'' Amaya E, Kroll KL.  Methods Mol Biol. 1999;97:393-414. [http://www.springerlink.com/content/vn5v1470g87620t1/#section=96225&page=1]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== '''''in situ Hybridization''''' ===
 +
*[[in situ hybridization, brief version (Harland lab)]]
 +
*[[whole-mount in situ hybridization (Conlon lab)]]
 +
**[[in situ checklist (Conlon lab)]]
 +
*[[whole-mount in situ hybridization - LNA probes (Wheeler lab)]]
 +
*[[fluorescent in-situs and FCIS (Vize lab)]]
 +
**[[Wholemount embryo FISH / Double FISH]]
 +
**[[Flourescin Tyramide Synthesis]]
 +
**[[Cy3 Tyramide Synthesis]]
 +
**[[FCIS]]
 +
*[[RNA Whole-Mount In situ Hybridisation Proximity Ligation Assay (rISH-PLA) (Myers and Scarlett labs)]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== '''''Immunohistochemistry''''' ===
 +
*[[wholemount antibody staining (CSH Protocols) (Wallingford lab)]]
 +
*[[wholemount antibody staining - alkaline phosphatase detection (Conlon lab)]]
 +
*[[wholemount antibody staining - adapted from Dan Weeks' protocol (Conlon lab)]]
 +
*[[immunostaining sectioned embryos (Conlon lab)]]
 +
*[[hydrochloric acid antigen retrieval (Zorn lab)]]
 +
*[[RNA Whole-Mount In situ Hybridisation Proximity Ligation Assay (rISH-PLA) (Myers and Scarlett labs)]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== '''''ChIP protocols''''' ===
 +
*'''Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of Xenopus embryos.''', Methods Mol Biol. 2012;917:279-92. [http://www.xenbase.org/literature/article.do?method=display&articleId=45851] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22956095]
 +
**Akkers RC, Jacobi UG, Veenstra GJ.
 +
*'''Chromatin immunoprecipitation in early Xenopus laevis embryos.''', Dev Dyn. 2009 Jun;238(6):1422-32. [http://www.xenbase.org/literature/article.do?method=display&articleId=39423] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19334278]
 +
**Blythe SA, Reid CD, Kessler DS, Klein PS.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== '''''Histology''''' ===
 +
*[[cryosectioning Xenopus embryos (Conlon lab)]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== '''''Embryo Staining Protocols (non in situ)''''' ===
 +
*[[benzidine-peroxidase staining for blood (Conlon lab)]]
 +
*[[benzidine-peroxidase staining for blood (Thomsen lab)]]
 +
*[[apoptosis via TUNEL (Veenstra lab)]]
 +
*[[TUNEL staining of whole Xenopus embryos - Harland protocol (Conlon lab)]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== '''''Immuno and Protein Protocols''''' ===
 +
*[[immunoprecipitation (Stukenberg lab)]]
 +
*[[immunofluorescence with biotinylated antibodies (Stukenberg lab)]]
 +
*Purifying Polyclonal Antibodies using Affinity Columns/Chromatography
 +
*[[Making an Affinity Column]]
 +
*[[Running an Affinity Column]]
 +
*[[whole embryo protein extraction with freon (Conlon lab)]]
 +
*[[SDS-PAGE gels (Conlon lab)]]
 +
*[[western blot protocol (Conlon lab)]]
 +
*[[silver staining protein gels (Stukenberg lab)]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== '''''Nucleic Acid Protocols''''' ===
 +
*RNA Isolation
 +
**[[Preparation of RNA Using Proteinase K/LiCl (Sive et al. 2000)]]
 +
**[[Preparation of RNA (In Vitro Transcription) (Sive et al. 2000)]]
 +
*DNA Isolation
 +
**[[Extraction of DNA from Single Embryos (Sive et al. 2000)]]
 +
**[[Isolation of DNA from Red Blood Cells (Sive et al. 2000)]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== '''''[[Oocyte Transfer Technique (Heasman/Wylie labs)]]''''' ===
 +
*[[Part 1: Choosing Oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs)]]
 +
*[[Part 2: ODN Modification]]
 +
*[[Part 3: Host Transfer Technique]]
 +
*[[Part 4: Fertilization and Development]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== '''''Xenopus Oocyte and Egg Extracts''''' ===
 +
*[[crude interphase egg extract (Shechter lab)]]
 +
*[[isolation of chromatin from egg extract and histone recovery (Shechter lab)]]
 +
*[[preparation of cycling egg extract (Shechter lab)]]
 +
*[[cycling extracts, mike's protocol (Stukenberg lab)]]
 +
*[[cycling extracts, sara's protocol (Stukenberg lab)]]
 +
*[[CSF extract, mike's protocol (Stukenberg lab)]]
 +
*[[CSF extract, sara's protocol (Stukenberg lab)]]
 +
*[[assaying H1 kinase in extracts (Stukenberg lab)]]
 +
*[[frozen egg extracts that retain spindle assembly activity (Takagi and Shimamoto, 2017)]]
 +
 
 +
=== '''''Xenopus Tissue Culture''''' ===
 +
*[[tissue culture of Xenopus cell lines S3, XTC (Stukenberg lab)]]
 +
*[[isolation of mitotic chromosomes from XTC cells (Stukenberg lab)]]
 +
*[[in-vitro kinetochore-microtubule binding assays (Stukenberg lab)]]

Latest revision as of 13:54, 26 October 2017


Books for Xenopus Research and Protocols

  • Normal Table of Xenopus Laevis (Daudin), Nieuwkoop and Faber (Third edition), 1994 [1]
    • a systematic and chronological description of Xenopus laevis development
  • Early Development of Xenopus laevis: A Laboratory Manual, Sive, Grainger, and Harland, 2000 [2]
    • comprehensive collection of protocols for the study of early development in Xenopus embryos
  • The Laboratory Xenopus sp., Green, 2010 [3]
    • a highly detailed manual containing Xenopus husbandry, management, veterinary care, and frog and equipment vendor information
  • Xenopus Protocols: Cell Biology and Signal Transduction, Liu (First edition), 2006 [4]
    • step-by-step laboratory instructions, an introduction outlining the principles behind the technique, lists of the necessary equipment and reagents
  • Xenopus Protocols: Post-Genomic Approaches. , Hoppler and Vize [5]
    • expanded second edition with novel approaches inspired by X. tropicalis genome sequencing
  • Xenopus laevis: Practical Uses in Cell and Molecular Biology, Volume 36, Kay and Peng, 1991 [6]
    • detailed description of a wide range of uses for Xenopus laevis oocytes and embryos in cell and molecular biology
  • Transgenic Xenopus: Microinjection Methods and Developmental Neurobiology, Seidman and Soreq, 1997 [7]
    • referenced guide to the use of microinjected embryos studying the role and regulation of nervous system proteins during development
  • Atlas of Xenopus Development, Bernardini, Prati, Bonetti, and Scari, 1999 [8]
    • scanning, transmission, and light microscopy images of Xenopus embryonic development
  • The early development of Xenopus laevis. An atlas of the histology, Hausen and Riebesell, 1991 [9]
    • detailed histological sections of Xenopus embryonic development
  • Color Atlas of Xenopus laevis Histology, Wiechmann and Wirsig-Wiechmann, 2003 [10]
    • central source on the microscopic anatomy of cells, tissues, and major organs of Xenopus laevis


Online Xenopus Resources

External links to the Journal of Visualized Experiments (JOVE) - Xenopus embryo [11] - excellent video demonstrations

    • Obtaining Eggs from Xenopus laevis Females - Cross & Powers [12]
    • Microinjection of Xenopus Laevis Oocytes - Cohen et al. - [13]
    • Fertilization of Xenopus oocytes, Host Transfer Method - Schneider et al. [14]
    • Tissue Determination Using Animal Cap Transplant (ACT) Assay in X. laevis - Viczian & Zuber [15]
    • Blastomere Explants to Test for Cell Fate Commitment - Grant et al. [16]
    • Transgenic Xenopus laevis by Restriction Enzyme Mediated Integration and Nuclear Transplantation - Amaya & Kroll [17]
    • Organizer and Animal Pole Explants from X. laevis Embryos and Cell Adhesion Assay - Ogata & Cho [18]
    • Plastic Embedding and Sectioning of X. laevis Embryos - Ogata1 et al. [19]
    • Visualizing RNA Localization in Xenopus Oocytes - Gagnon & Mowry [20]
    • Neural Explant Cultures from Xenopus laevis - Lowery et al. [21]
    • Translocation of Fluorescent Proteins in Xenopus Ectoderm in Response to Wnt Signaling - Itoh & Sokol [22]
    • Dissection, Culture, and Analysis of X. laevis Embryonic Retinal Tissue - McDonough et al. [23]
    • X. tropicalis Egg Extracts to Identify Microtubule-associated RNAs - Sharp & Blower [24]
    • Electroporation of Craniofacial Mesenchyme - Tabler & Liu [25]
    • Electrophysiological Recording from Xenopus Nerve-muscle Co-cultures - Yazejian et al. [26]
    • Single Cell Electroporation in vivo within the Intact Developing Brain - Hewapathirane & Haas - [27]
    • Live-cell Imaging and Quantitative Analysis of Embryonic Epithelial Cells - Joshi & Davidson [28]
    • Preparation and Fractionation of Xenopus laevis Egg Extracts - Cross & Powers [29]
    • In Vitro Nuclear Assembly Using Fractionated Xenopus Egg Extracts - Cross & Powers [30]
    • Study of the DNA Damage Checkpoint using Xenopus Egg Extracts - Willis et al. [31]
    • Two Types of Assays for Detecting Frog Sperm Chemoattraction - Burnett et al. [32]
    • Comparative in vivo Study of gp96 Adjuvanticity in X. laevis - Nedelkovska et al. [33]
    • Patch Clamp and Perfusion Techniques - Yang et al. [34]
    • Patch Clamp Recording of Ion Channels - Brown et al. [35]
    • Cation Transport in Xenopus Oocytes - Dürr et al.[36]
    • Stem cell-like Xenopus Embryonic Explants to Study Early Neural Developmental Features In Vitro and In Vivo - BC.Durand [37]
    • Dissection of Xenopus laevis Neural Crest for in vitro Explant Culture or in vivo Transplantation - Millet & Monsoro-Burq [38]


External links to Cold Spring Harbor Xenopus Protocols [39] - subscription required, select articles listed

    • Housing and Feeding of Xenopus laevis - Sive et al. [40]
    • Inducing Ovulation in Xenopus laevis - Sive et al. [41]
    • Xenopus laevis In Vitro Fertilization and Natural Mating Methods - Sive et al. [42]
    • Egg Collection and In Vitro Fertilization of the Western Clawed Frog Xenopus tropicalis - Showell & Conlon [43]
    • Isolation of Xenopus Oocytes - Sive et al. [44]
    • Isolating Xenopus laevis Testes - Sive et al. [45]
    • Dejellying Xenopus laevis Embryos - Sive et al. [46]
    • Removing the Vitelline Membrane from Xenopus laevis Embryos - Sive et al. [47]
    • Microinjection of Xenopus Embryos - Sive et al. [48]
    • Defolliculation of Xenopus Oocytes - Sive et al. [49]
    • Microinjection of Xenopus Oocytes - Sive et al. [50]
    • Animal Cap Isolation from Xenopus laevis - Sive et al. [51]
    • Xenopus laevis Keller Explants - Sive et al. [52]
    • Microinjection of RNA and Preparation of Secreted Proteins from Xenopus Oocytes - Sive et al. [53]
    • Calibration of the Injection Volume for Microinjection of Xenopus Oocytes and Embryos - Sive et al. [54]
    • Isolation of DNA from Red Blood Cells in Xenopus - Sive et al. [55]
    • Investigating Morphogenesis in Xenopus Embryos: Imaging Strategies, Processing, and Analysis - Kim & Davidson [56]
    • Low-Magnification Live Imaging of Xenopus Embryos for Cell and Developmental Biology - Wallingford [57]
    • High-Magnification In Vivo Imaging of Xenopus Embryos for Cell and Developmental Biology - Keiserman et al. [58]
    • Preparation of Fixed Xenopus Embryos for Confocal Imaging - Wallingford [59]
    • Whole-Mount Fluorescence Immunocytochemistry on Xenopus Embryos - Lee et al. [60]
    • Generation of Transgenic Xenopus laevis - Kroll & Amaya - [61] [62] [63]
    • In Vivo Time-Lapse Imaging of Neuronal Development in Xenopus - Ruthazer et al. [64]
    • Photoconversion for Tracking the Dynamics of Cell Movement in Xenopus laevis Embryos - Chernet et al. [65]
    • Single-Cell Electroporation in Xenopus - Liu & Haas [66]
    • Imaging Axon Pathfinding in Xenopus In Vivo - Leung & Holt [67]
    • A Versatile Protocol for mRNA Electroporation of Xenopus laevis Embryos - Chernet & Levin [68]


General Research Protocols

Animal Husbandry


Lab Solutions and Reagents (click each to view expanded content)


Generating Embryos


Transgenesis


in situ Hybridization


Immunohistochemistry


ChIP protocols

  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of Xenopus embryos., Methods Mol Biol. 2012;917:279-92. [75] [76]
    • Akkers RC, Jacobi UG, Veenstra GJ.
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation in early Xenopus laevis embryos., Dev Dyn. 2009 Jun;238(6):1422-32. [77] [78]
    • Blythe SA, Reid CD, Kessler DS, Klein PS.


Histology


Embryo Staining Protocols (non in situ)


Immuno and Protein Protocols


Nucleic Acid Protocols


Oocyte Transfer Technique (Heasman/Wylie labs)


Xenopus Oocyte and Egg Extracts

Xenopus Tissue Culture